First drafts of three more rudimentary naming languages – Proto-4, C3, and D6

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Now, the three last a priori languages in my project – one proto-language, and two standalone modern languages.

Because of the endless annoyances connected with getting WordPress to actually display angle brackets, instead of trying to interpret them as html code, I’ve given up and decided to go against standard linguistic practice on this blog by using quotation marks, rather than angle brackets, when talking about individual letters and digraphs: “a”, “b”, “ch”, etc.

Transliteration/Romanization

I generally use consonants with their English values and vowels with their German values. “g” is always a “hard” /g/, as in “goose”. “æ” is pronounced as the diphthong /eɪ/ (roughly a standard English “a” when reciting the alphabet). “h” after a vowel is silent and signals that the vowel is long. “ĥ” is pronounced as a voiceless palatal fricative ç (“ch” in German “ich” or “h” before “u” in some dialects of English). Apostrophes “’” are used to separate syllables, but only where that seems necessary – to separate a vowel-lengthening “h” from a vowel or another “h” at the beginning of the next syllable and to distinguish the consonant sequences “d’z” “s’h” “t’h” “t’s” “t’z” “z’h” from the digraphs “dz” “sh” “th” “ts” “tz” “zh”. Acutes “á” indicate stressed vowels.

(Why did I choose this particular romanization scheme? English and German orthography are the two orthographies I’m most familiar with myself, and I thought that neither using German consonants nor using English vowels would work out. If you can read this, you’re presumably already familiar with the English language, and able to decipher the meanings of English consonants. But it’s perfectly possible that you don’t know any German, and in that case, German consonant meanings would almost certainly confuse you. On the other hand, English vowels in their “pure” form tend to be pronounced as diphthongs that I don’t plan to use all that often. And German vowel pronunciations shouldn’t be that difficult to figure out for people who already know English – for every simple German vowel that isn’t an umlaut, there seem to be at least some English words where the letter in question is used for a sound close to the sound for which the letter is used in German.)

 

Proto-4

Needed as the base for three derived languages. These derived languages, in turn, will be needed as the base for 11 personal naming elements.

 

Phoneme inventory

(Romanization provided in cases where it differs from the IPA symbol)

Consonants

Labials Coronals Dorsals Gutterals
Plosives p t k g
Fricatives f v z h
Nasals n ŋ(“ng”)
Approximants w j(“y”) ʀ(“r”)

Vowels

Front Central Back
High i u
Low ä(“a”)
Diphthong eɪ (“æ”)

Phonotactics

CV (C)V(p,t,k or g) (C)Vŋ

The same phoneme must not immediately follow itself in the same word. Stress on the last syllable.

 

Morphology and Syntax

Proto-4 is mostly agglutinative. Since the vocabulary of Proto-4, so far, includes only nouns and adjectives, and no verbs, I’ve only thought about noun-related pre- and suffixes and noun- and adjective related word order so far. Adjectives generally come after the nouns they describe; the possessor generally comes after the possessum.

 

Prefixes and a Suffix

Proto-4 English
-op plural ending
ho- genitive prefix
nu- dative prefix
ya- accusative prefix

 

Regular Words

Proto-4 English
nik coward
tut forest
gætík hope
wung land, kingdom
kuág light
hu lung
gapét night sky
tupúp powerful, forceful, energetic, strong
patpát rain
tig river
kegít sky during daylight time
guwunát snake
hing spear
yungkáp species of bat
hat species of fish
piǽk species of flower [3]
hipí species of songbird [3]
towopúng species of tree [3]
gapít star
kegíp sun
pekǽp sword
taték type of spice/herb [1]
kogutáp type of spice/herb [4]

 

A Few Place Names

Place name Place name origin
Tigho‘hatóp River of a particular species of fish
Wunghonikóp Land/kingdom of the cowards [the people who coined the name didn‘t call themselves cowards; they called the people whose land they conquered cowards]
Wunghotút Forest Land/kingdom

 

People’s Given Names

Name Name origin
Gætík Hope
Gapét Night sky
Gapít Star
Guwunát Snake
Hing Spear
Hipí Species of songbird [3]
Hutupúp Strong lung
Kegíp Sun
Kegít Sky during daylight
Kogutáp Type of spice/herb [4]
Kuág Light
Patpát Rain
Pekǽp Sword
Piǽk Species of flower [3]
Taték Type of spice/herb [1]
Towopúng Species of tree [3]
Yungkáp Species of bat

 

Language temporarily code named C3

I haven’t decided yet whether it is a language isolate or simply the only language from its family that has appeared in my conhistory so far, but I’m leaning towards the latter. Anyway, this language will have to provide 13 naming elements.

 

Phoneme inventory

(Romanization provided in cases where it differs from the IPA symbol)

Consonants

Labials Coronals Dorsals Gutterals
Plosives b d g
Fricatives f z ç(“ĥ”) h
Nasals m n
Liquids j(“y”) ʀ(“r”)

Vowels

Front Central Back
High i u
Close o
Low ä(“a”)

Phonotactics

(C)V(C) PRVC

Syllables must have at least one consonant
The phonemes “h” and “y” are disallowed from the coda.
The same phoneme must not immediately follow itself in the same word.
Stress on the third-to-last syllable, or the first syllable of a two-syllable-word.

 

Morphology and Syntax

C3 is generally isolating. Adjectives come before the nouns that they describe. Beyond that, I haven’t thought about morphology or syntax yet.

 

Since all the given names in C3 are simple noun roots, I’ll simply provide the list of personal names from it:

Name Name origin
Brózugif Species of tree [4]
Dódzu Rain
Grízid Emerald
Ĥíĥi Species of songbird [1]
Ínfabrad Ruby
Nírin Fortunate/blessed one
Nóaz Species of flower [4]
Óbun Sky
Vad Sun
Yuf Star
Záĥi Light

 

Language temporarily code named D6

I haven’t decided yet whether it is a language isolate or simply the only language from its family that has appeared in my conhistory so far, but I’m leaning towards the former. Anyway, this language will have to provide 12 naming elements.

 

Phoneme inventory

(Romanization provided in cases where it differs from the IPA symbol)

Consonants

Labials Coronals Velar Gutterals
Plosives b t d g
Fricatives f v s h
Nasals m n
Approximants ( w ) l ɹ(“r”) ( w )

Vowels

Front Central Back
High i u
Close e o
Low ä(“a”)

Phonotactics – possible words:

(C)(V)V(C)

The same phoneme must not immediately follow itself in the same word.
Stress on the first vowel.
There must be at least one consonant per word.
The phonemes “h” and “w” are disallowed from ending a word

 

Morphology and Syntax

I’m afraid I haven’t thought about the morphology or syntax of D6 yet at all.

 

Since all the names in D6 are simple nouns or adjectives, I’ll just provide a list of personal given names:

Name Name origin
Búov Species of bat
Fáev Light
Héut Species of tree [5]
Líod Gift
Máug Highly valued
Míor Star
Róav Strong
Séib Bee-like insect
Síet Snake
Tái Sun
Váub Hope
Wéa Fast moving

 

And finally, several “languages”, unrelated to the others and each other, that will only have to provide one name each, listed by temporary code name of the language, followed by the type of name and actual name they will provide:

E1 (name of an alliance that was at war with my main conculture once) Dúhjrujt Noh
E2 (name of a strait) Ízlfæjtz Strait
E5 (name of a place where a conference resulting in a peace treaty was held) Hakák Umáh’o Tel
E7 (surname followed by given name) Syóhfelt Molní
E11 (name of a nation that was sometimes at war with my main conculture) Nándime
E12 (name of a nation that was at war with my main conculture at least once) Wóhshrut Klíta
E13 (name of a place where an important treaty was signed) Fre!gnìsk

 

That’s it as far as a priori languages are concerned – now on to the sound changes! By the way, if you’re wondering whether I really need all those languages,
here’s a Google Docs upload of the spreadsheet that I use to keep track of how many of which kind of naming elements I need in which languages and language families for what I’ve written of my conhistory so far. The A/B/C/D/E alphanumerical scheme is based on politics and history, not linguistics – that’s why it doesn’t align with the language families. That spreadsheet might, however, make my conhistory look more extensive than it is. So far, what I’ve written of my conhistory would only fill about 27 or 28 pages if I would print it. It contains so many names because most of it is a long list of rulers of my main conculture covering several centuries with notes on what they did and what happened during their rule, and under the political system of my main conculture, a ruler usually just gets to rule for two years.

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First drafts of two more rudimentary naming languages – Proto-2 and Proto-3

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This post should probably start with the announcement that I’ve made some minor edits to the previous post since I posted it, partly in response to feedback, partly after discovering some problems myself.

But the rest of this post is about first drafts for two more proto-naming-languages for my conhistory, Proto-2 and Proto-3. They’re a lot less worked out than Proto-1, with a lot fewer words and names, so I cover them in one post. Unfortunately, some name etymologies are similar or identical in two or even all three languages – I simply ran out of ideas.

Because of the endless annoyances connected with getting WordPress to actually display angle brackets, instead of trying to interpret them as html code, I’ve given up and decided to go against standard linguistic practice on this blog by using quotation marks, rather than angle brackets, when talking about individual letters and digraphs: “a”, “b”, “ch”, etc.

Transliteration/Romanization

I generally use consonants with their English values and vowels with their German values. “g” is always a “hard” /g/, as in “goose”. “æ” is pronounced as the diphthong /eɪ/ (roughly a standard English “a” when reciting the alphabet). “h” after a vowel is silent and signals that the vowel is long. Apostrophes “’” are used to separate syllables, but only where that seems necessary – to separate a vowel-lengthening “h” from a vowel or another “h” at the beginning of the next syllable and to distinguish the consonant sequences “d’z” “s’h” “t’h” “t’s” “t’z” “z’h” from the digraphs “dz” “sh” “th” “ts” “tz” “zh”. Acutes “á” indicate stressed vowels.

(Why did I choose this particular romanization scheme? English and German orthography are the two orthographies I’m most familiar with myself, and I thought that neither using German consonants nor using English vowels would work out. If you can read this, you’re presumably already familiar with the English language, and able to decipher the meanings of English consonants. But it’s perfectly possible that you don’t know any German, and in that case, German consonant meanings would almost certainly confuse you. On the other hand, English vowels in their “pure” form tend to be pronounced as diphthongs that I don’t plan to use all that often. And German vowel pronunciations shouldn’t be that difficult to figure out for people who already know English – for every simple German vowel that isn’t an umlaut, there seem to be at least some English words where the letter in question is used for a sound close to the sound for which the letter is used in German.)

 

Proto-2

Needed as the base for two derived languages. These derived languages, in turn, will be needed as the
base for 30 naming elements, although it should be possible – and desirable – to reuse many of the
naming elements.

Phoneme inventory

(Romanization provided in cases where it differs from the IPA symbol)

Consonants

Labials Coronals Dorsals Glottal
Plosives p b t d k g
Fricatives f v z h
Nasals n
Approximants w l ɹ(“r”) j(“y”)

Vowels

Front Central Back
High i u u:(“uh”)
Close e:(“eh”) o:(“oh”)
Low ä:(“ah”)

Phonotactics

(C)V(C)

No three vowels may follow each other in the same word. The same phoneme must not immediately follow itself in the same word. No two vowels that only differ by length may immediately follow each other in the same word. Syllables must have at least one consonant. Stress on the second-to-last syllable, unless there are both long and short vowels in the word, in which case it is on the first long vowel.

Morphology and Syntax

I must admit that I haven’t thought about these for Proto-2 at all yet.

Names

Since all the names in Proto-2 are simply noun or adjective roots, I’ll simply post a list of given names and their meanings:

Name Name origin
Buféht sword
Buhn silver
Bútpun sturdy, durable, capable of enduring hardship or pressure
Dilkéh species of songbird [2]
Ditánu species of tree [1]
Fífi species of songbird [1]
zdid gold
Hiz spear
Káhd‘yáhr ruby
Kardóhn species of bat
hd‘yur emerald
rkap type of berry [1]
Kírkip sweet, sweetness
Kúnwun type of spice/herb [3]
Natkéhk gift
Pakáhn light (noun)
Pakáhp joy
Pakáht sun
Pakéhp hope
tta precious, highly valued
Róhroh lion, lioness
hgit fierce, powerfully moving
Tandéh species of flower [1]
Tizéh star
Yúnpa type of spice/herb [2]
Zehb mercy, compassion
nfu snake

 

Proto-3

Needed as the base for four derived languages, with two intermediate languages along the way. The ultimate derived languages, in turn, will be needed as the base for 62 naming elements, although it should be possible – and desirable – to reuse many of the naming elements.

Phoneme inventory

(Romanization provided in cases where it differs from the IPA symbol)

Consonants

Labials Dentals Postalveolars Gutteral
Plosives p t d tʃ(“ch”) k
Fricatives v h
Nasals m n
Approximants l ɹ(“r”)
Approximants ( w ) j(“y”) ( w )

 

Vowels

Front Central Back
High i *i(“í”) u *u(“ú”)
Close *e(“é”) o *o:(“óh”)
Low æ ä(“a”) *ä(“á”)
Diphthong eɪ (“æ”)

*=vowel has integral phonemic stress regardless of where it appears

Phonotactics

(C)V(C)

The same phoneme must not immediately follow itself in the same word. No two vowels that only differ by stress or lack thereof may immediately follow each other in the same word. Stress is determined by which stressed vowels appear in the word. Each polysyllabic word must contain at least one stressed syllable. In monosyllabic words, the vowel must be stressed or æ.

Morphology and Syntax

Proto-3 is generally isolating. Unfortunately, I haven’t thought much about the word order yet. But when it comes to names consisting of several words, the general word order is verb → adverb → regular noun → adjective → possessor noun → adjective relating to the possessor noun. In sentences, basic word order is SVO.

Regular Words

Proto-3 English
kæ blue
næ brother
lél cheeky, outrageous
dúpu cloud
ekáh crow- or raven-like bird
áhk daughter
hú down (direction)
káhdul evening
vút eye
fall (season)
dóh father
itél firstborn
wóh five
náhv four
úntikæp fulfilled wish
móh fur, pelt
ité gemstone
pív gift, blessing
yíu gold
váhk green
chúv harvest
tóhn heart
pidí hope
kúdæd incisor
vép land, area
kép morning
kóh mother
púp much, many
punúv muscle meat
lóh mystical form of energy, life energy, vital force
ichíd night
úntido non-romantic love, care, consideration
æp one
dæm pleasant smell
dúdud rain
méch red
æv sea
káhd shadow (noun), something that is not material
óhv sign/portent of good fortune
tóhdi silver
wáhk sister
kæv sky
páh son
chédod spear
tuipóh species of flower [2]
pækíd species of songbird [1]
déchtu species of tree [2]
odmé spine
él spring (season)
úch star
yiém stranger
vóhdu strong, powerful, forceful
pæt summer
chích sword
dúl three
kúdit to be born (active verb, unlike the paasive construction used in English)
yúp two
pépik type of berry [2]
diupté type of spice/herb [3]
kípip type of spice/herb [4]
táh up (direction)
tém wet, moist
dúput wind
kupéch winter
vidkéd year

Names

First, names of two deities. Those aren’t the only two deities which were worshipped by some speakers of Proto-3 – just the only ones I have named so far.

Deity Name Origin of Deity Name
Dóh Váhk „Green Father“; God of the Sea
Wáhk Lél „Cheeky/Outrageous Sister“; Trickster Goddess

Now, human given names

Name Name origin
Áhk Yiém Daughter of a stranger [living in the village]
Chédod Spear
Chích Sword
Dæm Pleasant smell
Déchtu Species of tree [2]
Diupté Type of spice/herb [3]
Dúdud Rain
Dúpu Cloud [often used as a metaphor for bad things in English, but in early agricultural societies, that might not necessarily be the case]
Ekáh Crow/raven-like bird
Ité Kæ Sapphire („blue gemstone“)
Ité Méch Ruby („red gemstone“)
Ité Váhk Emerald („green gemstone“)
Itél Firstborn
Kæv Sky
Kípip Type of spice/herb [4]
Kúdæd Incisor
Kúdit Chúv Born during the harvest
Kúdit Él Born in spring
Kúdit Ichíd Born at night
Kúdit Káhdul Born in the evening
Kúdit Kép Born in the morning
Kúdit Kupéch Born in winter
Kúdit Mæ Born in fall
Kúdit Pæt Born in summer
Kúdit Úch Óhv Born under a good star
Pækíd Species of songbird [1]
Páh Yiém Son of a stranger [living in the village]
Pépik Type of berry [2]
Pidí Hope
Pív Gift/blessing
Pív Dóh Váhk Gift of a god of the sea
Pív Wáhk Lél Gift of a trickster goddess
Tóhdi Silver
Tóhn Vóhdu Strong heart
Tuipóh Species of flower [2]
Úntikæp Fulfilled wish
Vidkéd Æp One year [after the parents’ wedding or the birth of their firstborn]
Vidkéd Dúl Three years [after the parents’ wedding or the birth of their firstborn]
Vidkéd Náhv Four years [after the parents‘ wedding or the birth of their firstborn]
Vidkéd Wóh Five years [after the parents‘ wedding or the birth of their firstborn]
Vidkéd Yúp Two years [after the parents’ wedding or the birth of their firstborn]
Vút Váhk Green eye
Yíu Gold

That’s it!

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Naming Language Proto-1 – Third Draft

(January 18th update: made some minor edits that didn’t justify a new post – changed the presentation of prefixes, added slot tables, and corrected a typo.)

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Since the last draft, I’ve learned more about phonetic assimilation and how a sound combination in which sounds that are articulated in too different places follow each other is hard to pronounce for pretty much everyone. Before I learned that, I had thought that how pronounceable or unpronounceable any given sound or combination of sounds is depends entirely on what you’re used to from your first language. I’ve also decided to relax the morphosyntax of compounds a bit to make it easier to form relatively short names.

The selection of words is based on what I need for personal and place names, although some words are still there that I had planned to use as the base for names that turned out to be impractical. That’s why there’s a relatively high number of “friendly” words on the list, but not really any insults. The list is strongly biased towards monosyllabic words to keep the name derived from them from getting too long; many of them ended up fairly long anyway. The “official” excuse for having so many names based on monosyllabic words is that the speakers of the language were themselves more likely to derive names from monosyllabic roots.

I’m still very new to this, so I apologize in advance for any misuse of linguistic terms.

Edit: Because of the endless annoyances connected with getting WordPress to actually display angle brackets, instead of trying to interpret them as html code, I’ve given up and decided to go against standard linguistic practice on this blog by using quotation marks, rather than angle brackets, when talking about individual letters and digraphs: “a”, “b”, “ch”, etc.

Transliteration/Romanization

I generally use consonants with their English values and vowels with their German values. “g” is always a “hard” /g/, as in “goose”. after a vowel is silent and signals that the vowel is long. Apostrophes “’” are used to separate syllables, but only where that seems necessary – to separate a vowel-lengthening from a vowel or another at the beginning of the next syllable and to distinguish the consonant sequences “d’z” “s’h” “t’h” “t’s” “t’z” “z’h” from the digraphs “dz” “sh” “th” “tz” “zh”. Acutes “á” indicate stressed vowels.

(Why did I choose this particular romanization scheme? English and German orthography are the two orthographies I’m most familiar with myself, and I thought that neither using German consonants nor using English vowels would work out. If you can read this, you’re presumably already familiar with the English language, and able to decipher the meanings of English consonants. But it’s perfectly possible that you don’t know any German, and in that case, German consonant meanings would almost certainly confuse you. On the other hand, English vowels in their “pure” form tend to be pronounced as diphthongs that I don’t plan to use all that often. And German vowel pronunciations shouldn’t be that difficult to figure out for people who already know English – for every simple short German vowel that isn’t an umlaut, there seem to be at least some English words where the letter in question is used for a sound close to the sound for which the letter is used in German.)

Proto-1

Proto-1 was spoken thousands of years – I haven’t decided how many thousands yet – before the time covered by what I’ve written of my conhistory so far. It is needed as the base for 9 derived languages, including my main conculture’s main language. On the way there, it should become the base for three intermediate languages. The ultimate derived languages, in turn, will be needed as the base for 323 naming elements, although it should be possible – and desirable – to reuse many of the naming elements.

Phoneme inventory

(Romanization provided in cases where it differs from the IPA symbol)

Consonants

Labials Dentals Alveolar Postalveolar Dorsals Gutteral
Plosives p b t d k g
Fricatives f θ(“th”) s z ʃ(“sh”) ʒ(“zh”) h
Affricates tz dz tʃ(“ch”) dʒ(“j”)
Nasals m n
Approximants ( w ) l ( w ) j(“y”) ʀ(“r”)

Vowels

Front Central Back
High i iː(“ih”) u
Close e o:(“oh”)
Low ä(“a”) ä:(“ah”)

 

Phonotactics

(C)(R)V (C)(R)V(s,m,n,r,l)P (C)VP V(s,m,n,r,l)P VP

No three vowels may follow each other in the same word. The same phoneme must not immediately follow itself in the same word. No two vowels that only differ by length may immediately follow each other in the same word. Long vowels may only be followed by one consonant in that syllable.

Stress on the last syllable of non-compound words, unless there are both long and short vowels in the word, in which case it is on the last long vowel. Early regular numbers and names of deities are always stressed on the first syllable. Compounds containing one or more polysyllabic roots usually, but not always, retain the stress of their components.

Morphology

Morphology

I haven’t thought that much about the morphology of Proto-1 yet. For a start, Proto-1 is mostly agglutinative, or as agglutinative as I can make it. Words are generally inflected by means of prefixes. These prefixes are, however, usually left out when forming compounds. Some prefixes effectively function as a kind of adjectives, but they are still treated as a separate class from regular adjectives.

Verbs:
-4 -3 -2 -1 0
irrealis tense person and number negation root
Nouns:
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0
case marker plural gr(e) et adjective if it is integral part of the compund kl(a) or kr(i) root

Proto-1 doesn’t distinguish between adjectives and adverbs. Adjectives, as mentioned, generally come before the nouns they describe, both in sentences and in compounds.

The principal sentence order is SOV. This is used in compounds as well – if a compounds contains both a noun root and a verb root, the verb root follows the noun root.

Nouns can have three cases: Nominative, genitive/possessive, and accusative/dative. If a sentence or compounds contains a nominative noun and a genitive noun relating to it, the genitive noun comes first.

Proto-1 doesn’t have gender.

The unmarked form of verbs is the third person present tense.

Names of deities follow their own morphological rules, which are generally simpler than those used elsewhere in the language. The nominative form of the deity’s title is simply compounded with the nominative form of the deity’s “portfolio”.

If two identical sounds follow each other in a compound, they merge.

That’s all for now in this section, I guess.

And here come the wordlists – prefixes, regular words, names of deities, and human given names

(Edit: slightly changed the way prefixes are presented after some feedback)

First, prefixes:

Proto-1 English
w(ih)- possible prefix signifying an object, phenomenon, or abstract concept related to the following root
y(íh)- another possible prefix signifying an object, phenomenon, or abstract concept related to the following root
et- intensifying prefix
kl(a)- prefix signifying a person who works with/operates/handles/plays something
gr(e)- negating prefix
kr(i)- prefix turning a verb or adjective into a noun describing a person or animal doing that or having that trait
fr(u)- genitive/possessive prefix
tr(e)- accusative/dative prefix
z(i)- plural prefix for either nouns or verbs (after person- and tense marker for verbs, after case marker for nouns)
bl(i)- first person prefix (after tense marker)
izh- second person prefix (after tense marker)
pr(ah)- remote past prefix
pl(e)- completed past action prefix
tl(u)- ongoing past action prefix
sr(i)- future tense prefix
oh(t)- irrealis prefix (precedes all other prefixes)

Now, regular words:

Proto-1 English
tunt after, following
tark all that is, everything (mass noun)
bid and
wiúl arrow
pank to be born (active verb, unlike the passive construction used in English)
rohrg bear-like animal
hab black
kenk boat
dralt brother
pomp buffalo-like animal
zhiht careful, meticulous
mah cat
tank cheeky
simb child as in “first generation descendant”, though NOT child as in “young person”
ilk choice, option to make a decision
yihkem cloud
yíhpech club (simple but effective tool for hitting people or animals with)
pert coinciding with, taking place during, while something happens
ahr to collect, gather, pick up
burg crab
krak crow- or raven-like bird
lurp curious
churt curve, crooked line
yíhralp danger, threat
perg dark, darkish (color) (as in, “dark green” as opposed to “light green”, NOT used for lack of light)
sahp darkness, dark place
puk day
lan dedication (of something or someone to something or someone)
lohk deer
piht dividing line
ek to do pottery
grekém drought (“rain-negated”)
dub drum (noun)
kladúb drummer
hahrk eagle
peb ear
lib early afternoon
het early morning, first signs of dawn
pum early summer
tarkré earthquake (“everything shakes”)
tsik end (noun)
wíhrulp escape, rescue (noun)
ilt evening
ahf to expand
shoht experienced, wise
kihg eye
pim face
riht fall (season)
zhimb family
zhah father
liht fierce, passionate
kirt fifth
um to fight, make war
slu fire
slurt fire pit
pul first
kel fish
krufkél fisher (“fish hunter”)
kírtu five
et flood (“very water”)
bahl flower
kurg foot
selp forest
táh‘u four
tah fourth
lun gift
penk to give birth
thenk good fortune, blessing, good luck
telp grass
zhunk gray (color)
talp green
thohp group of outsiders, rival tribe, neighboring group
kirg hand
hist hard, difficult, filled with hardship or difficulty
ezh to heal, improve, repair, make right
krezh healer, person who improves or repairs things or makes things right
pech to hit, strike
teltsík horizon (“end of the sky”)
hih horse-like animal
chi hundred
tamp hungry
uf to hunt
kruf hunter
guk large rock, boulder
chohk late afternoon
farp late morning
funk late summer
if to lay a trap
krif layer of traps, trapper
zhenk leader, head of household
zhip leopard- or jaguar-like animal
purg light (color), pale (as in “light green” as opposed to “dark green”, NOT used for presence of light)
bu little, small
shend lizard
felt long [distance, timespan]
pet long [object]
ark many
lild meat
tsahp middle of the night
etpalúp midsummer holiday (“very high sun”, shortened version of “etpaltslúp”)
gretpalúp midwinter holiday (“very high-negated sun”, shortened version of “gretpaltslúp”)
uk monkey
wīhpech mortar (tool for grinding)
fah mother
thurp mountain
surk mouth
chilt near, next to, side by side with
tulk new, young
tomp noise, loud sounds
palúp noon (“high sun”, shortened version of “paltslúp”)
talk old
chest on, at, in the same place as
pūlu one
ru owl-like bird
ip to paint, embellish
serk path, road
krishóht person who is experienced, wise
arp place (noun)
klafíh player of a recorder
krek potter
shu powerful spirit/deity
zhilp priest, cleric, shaman
tink quiet, shy
kem rain (noun)
fih recorder (instrument)
zhahf respected/venerated/worshiped ancestor
dzerp rightful, righteous
kes river, creek
heb rocky surface
rulp safe, protected
tud second
páku seven
pak seventh
re to shake, vibrate, shiver
eng sing
kreng singer
drult sister
fúlu six
ful sixth
telt sky
sak spear
shohk species of tree [3]
tumpéb speech, name of the language itself
hank spider
balk spring (season)
ul to sprint, move very quickly
kip string, rope
etkriré strong person (“intensifier-shaker)
slup sun
palt tall, high
fink third
fínku three
teltómp thunderstorm (“sky noise”)
salk tip of a spear
krich track reader
chank trunk (of a tree)
túdu two
thank victory
wíh‘um war
krum warrior
ke water
kohb way [of doing things]
foh wind
irp winter
hu wolf-like animal
alk wonderful [event], miraculous, positively surprising
chichichízárp world (“hundred hundred hundred places”)
pirp year

The names of deities:

Deity name Origin of deity name
Fáhfah Fertility goddess
Zháhmah God of cats
Zháhkrezh God of healing
Zháhkruf God of hunting
Zháhshend God of lizards
Fáhzhip Goddess of a leopard/jaguar-like animal
Fáh’hu Goddess of a wolf-like animal
Fáh’uk Goddess of monkeys
Fáhwih’um Goddess of war
Shúpomp Spirit/deity of a buffalo-like animal
Shúburg Spirit/deity of crabs
Shúlohk Spirit/deity of deer
Shúslu Spirit/deity of fire
Shúbahl Spirit/deity of flowers
Shútelp Spirit/deity of grass
Shúhank Spirit/deity of spiders
Shúselp Spirit/deity of the forest
Shúthurp Spirit/deity of the mountains
Shúke Spirit/deity of water
Shúkrishóht Spirit/deity of wisdom

And finally, the given names of human beings:

(Not all of these names were used at the same time in the same place; different groups had different naming traditions.)

Name Name origin
Alwíhrulpánk Born [after the] miraculous escape [from a great danger]
Balkpánk Born in spring
Bukdrált [younger] brother of [a child nicknamed] little monkey
Bukdrúlt [younger] sister of [a child nicknamed] little monkey
Chohkpánk Born in the late afternoon
Etkepánk Born [after] a flood
Etkreksímb Child of a potter
Etkrengsímb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] great singer
Etkrezhsímb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] great healer
Etkrichsímb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] skilled tracker
Etkrifsímb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] great preparer of traps
Etkriresímb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] strong person
Etkrufsímb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] great hunter
Etkrumsímb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] great warrior
Etpalupánk Born [during the] midsummer holiday
Fáh’uklun Gift of the goddess of monkeys
Fáh’hulun Gift of the goddess of a wolf-like animal
Fáhfahlun Gift of the fertility goddess
Fáhwih’umlun Gift of the goddess of war
Fáhzhiplun Gift of the goddess of a leopard/jaguar-like animal
Farpánk Born late in the morning
Finkpánk Thirdborn
Fulpánk Sixtborn
Funkpánk Born in late summer
Grekempánk Born [during an unusually long] drought
Gretpalupánk Born [during the] midwinter holiday
Hahrg Eagle
Hetpánk Born early in the morning
Hispánk Difficult birth (shortened form of “Histpánk”)
Hispirpánk Born [during a] difficult year (shortened form of “Histpirpánk”)
Iltpánk Born in the evening
Irpánk Born in winter
Kempánk Born [during an unusually long period of] rain
Kirtpánk Fifthborn
Kladubsímb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] drummer
Klafihsímb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] recorder player
Krak Crow/raven-like bird
Krishoht’símb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] wise/knowledgeable person
Kritampdrált [younger] brother of [a child nicknamed] the hungry one
Kritampdrúlt [younger] sister of [a child nicknamed] the hungry one
Kritankdrált [younger] brother of [a child nicknamed] the cheeky one
Kritankdrúlt [younger] sister of [a child nicknamed] the cheeky one
Kritinkdrált [younger] brother of [a child nicknamed] the quiet/shy one
Kritinkdrúlt [younger] sister of [a child nicknamed] the quiet/shy one
Kriturdrúlt [younger] sister of [a child nicknamed] the curious one (shortened form of “Kriturpdrúlt”)
Kriturpdrált [younger] brother of [a child nicknamed] the curious one /shortened form of “Kritupdrált”)
Kruldrált [younger] brother of [a child nicknamed] fast runner
Kruldrúlt [younger] sister of [a child nicknamed] fast runner
Krulsímb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] fast runner
Lanfáh’uk Dedicated to the goddess of monkeys
Lanfáh’hu Dedicated to the goddess of a wolf-like animal
Lanfáhfah Dedicated to the fertility goddess
Lanfáhwih’um Dedicated to the goddess of war
Lanfáhzhip Dedicated to the goddess of a leopard/jaguar-like animal
Lanshúbahl Dedicated to the spirit/deity of flowers
Lanshúburg Dedicated to the spirit/deity of crabs
Lanshúhank Dedicated to the spirit/deity of spiders
Lanshúke Dedicated to the spirit/deity of water
Lanshúkrishóht Dedicated to the spirit/deity of wisdom
Lanshúlohk Dedicated to the spirit/deity of deer
Lanshúpomp Dedicated to the spirit/deity of a buffalo-like animal
Lanshúselp Dedicated to the spirit/deity of the forest
Lanshúslu Dedicated to the spirit/deity of fire
Lanshútelp Dedicated to the spirit/deity of grass
Lanshúthurp Dedicated to the spirit/deity of the mountains
Lanzhahfháhrk Dedicated to the respected ancestor named Hahrk
Lanzhahfkrák Dedicated to the respected ancestor named Krak
Lanzhahfliht Dedicated to the respected ancestor named Liht
Lanzhahfpérg Dedicated to the respected ancestor named Perg
Lanzhahfpúrg Dedicated to the respected ancestor named Purg
Lanzhahfróhrg Dedicated to the respected ancestor named Rohrg
Lanzhahfsák Dedicated to the respected ancestor named Sak
Lanzhahfsálk Dedicated to the respected ancestor named Salk
Lanzhahfthánk Dedicated to the respected ancestor named Thank
Lanzháhkrezh Dedicated to the god of healing
Lanzháhkruf Dedicated to the god of hunting
Lanzháhmah Dedicated to the god of cats
Lanzháhshend Dedicated to the god of lizards
Libpánk Born in the early afternoon
Liht Fierce
Mahdrált [younger] brother of [a child nicknamed] cat
Mahdrúlt [younger] sister of [a child nicknamed] cat
Pakpánk Seventhborn
Palupánk Born at noon
Perg [unusually] dark-skinned
Pulpánk Firstborn
Pumpánk Born in early summer
Purg [unusually] light-skinned
Rihtpánk Born in fall
Rohrg Bear-like animal
Sak Spear
Salk Tip of a spear
Shúbahllun Gift of the spirit/deity of flowers
Shúburglun Gift of the spirit/deity of crabs
Shúhanklun Gift of the spirit/deity of spiders
Shúkelun Gift of the spirit/deity of water
Shúkrishóhtlun Gift of the spirit/deity of wisdom
Shúlohklun Gift of the spirit/deity of deer
Shúpomplun Gift of the spirit/deity of a buffalo-like animal
Shúselplun Gift of the spirit/deity of the forest
Shúslulun Gift of the spirit/deity of fire
Shútelplun Gift of the spirit/deity of grass
Shúthurplun Gift of the spirit/deity of the mountains
Tahpánk Fourthborn
Talpzikíhk Green eyes
Tarkrepánk Born [shortly after] the earthquake
Teltompánk Born [during a] thunderstorm
Thank Victory
Tsahpánk Born in the middle of the night
Tudpánk Secondborn
Wiúl Arrow
Zháhkrezhlun Gift of the god of healing
Zháhkruflun Gift of the god of hunting
Zháhmahlun Gift of the god of cats
Zháhshendlun Gift of the god of lizards
Zhihtkirgsímb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] careful/meticulous hand
Zhilsímb Child of a priest/cleric/shaman (shortened form of “Zhilpsímb”)
Zidraldrúlt Sister of [several older] brothers (shortened form of “Zidraltdrúlt”)
Zidruldrált Brother of [several older] sisters (shortened form of “Zidrultdrált”)

That’s it!

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Naming Language Proto-1 – Second Draft

Edit: the third draft is up now.

 

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The selection of words is based on what I need for personal and place names, although some words are still there that I had planned to use as the base for names that turned out to be impractical. That’s why there’s a relatively high number of “friendly” words on the list, but not really any insults. The list is strongly biased towards monosyllabic words to keep the names derived from them from getting too long; many of them ended up fairly long anyway. The “official” excuse for having so many names based on monosyllabic words is that the speakers of the language were themselves more likely to derive names from monosyllabic roots.

I’m still very new to this, so I apologize in advance for any misuse of linguistic terms.

Transliteration/Romanization

I generally use consonants with their English values and vowels with their German values. <g> is always a “hard” /g/, as in “goose”. <h> after a vowel is silent and signals that the vowel is long. Apostrophes <’> are used to separate syllables, but only where that seems necessary – to separate a vowel-lengthening <h> from a vowel or another <h> at the beginning of the next syllable and to distinguish the consonant sequences <d’z> <s’h> <t’h> <t’s> <t’z> <z’h> from the digraphs <dz> <sh> <th> <ts> <tz> <zh>. Acutes <á> indicate stressed vowels.

Proto-1

Proto-1 was spoken thousands of years – I haven’t decided how many thousands yet – before the time covered by what I’ve written of my conhistory so far. It is needed as the base for 9 derived languages, including my main conculture’s main language. On the way there, it should become the base for three intermediate languages. The ultimate derived languages, in turn, will be needed as the base for 323 naming elements, although it should be possible – and desirable – to reuse many of the naming elements.

Phoneme inventory

(Romanization provided in cases where it differs from the IPA symbol)

Consonants

Labials Dentals Alveolar Postalveolar Dorsals Gutteral
Plosives p b t d k g
Fricatives f θ(<th>) s z ʃ(<sh>) ʒ(<zh>) h
Affricates tz dz tʃ(<ch>) dʒ(<j>)
Nasals m n
Approximants ( w ) l ( w ) j(<y>) ʀ(<r>)

Vowels

Front Central Back
High i iː(<ih>) u
Close e o:(<oh>)
Low ä(<a>) ä:(<ah>)

Phonotactics

(C)(R)V (C)(R)VNP (C)VP VNP VP VRP

No three vowels may follow each other in the same word. The same phoneme must not immediately follow itself in the same word. No two vowels that only differ by length may immediately follow each other in the same word. Long vowels may only be followed by one consonant in that syllable.

Stress on the last syllable of non-compound words, unless there are both long and short vowels in the word, in which case it is on the last long vowel. Early regular numbers and names of deities are always stressed on the first syllable. Compounds containing one or more polysyllabic roots usually retain the stress of their components.

Morphology and Syntax

I haven’t thought that much about the morphology or syntax of Proto-1 yet. For a start, Proto-1 is mostly agglutinative, or as agglutinative as I can make it. Words are generally inflected by means of prefixes. Some prefixes effectively function as a kind of adjectives, but they are still treated as a separate class from regular adjectives. In a compound consisting of an adjective root, one or more prefixes, and a noun root, the order is adjective root → prefix or prefixes → noun root. (If the compound itself gets inflected, the prefixes used for that are put before the adjective root.)

Proto-1 doesn’t distinguish between adjectives and adverbs. Adjectives, as mentioned, generally come before the nouns they describe, both in sentences and in compounds.

The principal sentence order is SOV. This is used in compounds as well – if a compounds contains both a noun root and a verb root, the verb root follows the noun root.

Nouns can have three cases: Nominative, genitive/possessive, and accusative/dative. If a sentence or compounds contains a nominative noun and a genitive noun relating to it, the genitive noun comes first.

Proto-1 doesn’t have gender.

The unmarked form of verbs is the third person present tense.

Names of deities follow their own morphological rules, which are generally simpler than those used elsewhere in the language. The nominative form of the deity’s title is simply compounded with the nominative form of the deity’s “portfolio”.

If two identical sounds follow each other in a compound, they merge.

That’s all for now in this section, I guess.

 

And here come the wordlists – prefixes, regular words, names of deities, and human given names

 

Prefixes
Proto-1 English
wih- possible prefix signifying an object, phenomenon, or abstract concept related to the following root
w- prefix replacing „wih“ before roots starting with i or ih
yíh- another possible prefix signifying an object, phenomenon, or abstract concept related to the following root
y- prefix replacing „yih“ before roots starting with i or ih
et- intensifying prefix
kla- prefix signifying a person who works with/operates/handles/plays something
kl- prefix replacing „kla-“ before vowels
gre- negating prefix before consonants
gr- negating prefix before vowels
kri- prefix turning a verb or adjective into a noun describing a person or animal doing that or having that trait
kri- prefix replacing „kri-“ before vowels
fru- genitive/possessive prefix before consonants
fr- genitive/possessive prefix before vowels
tre- accusative/dative prefix before consonants
tr- accusative/dative prefix before vowels
z- plural prefix for either nouns or verbs (after person- and tense marker for verbs, after case marker for nouns)
zi- plural prefix for either nouns or verbs used where „z“ alone would be against the phonotactical rules
bli- first person prefix before consonants (after tense marker)
bl- first person prefix before vowels (after tense marker)
izh- second person prefix (after tense marker)
prah- remote past prefix before consonants
pr- remote past prefix before vowels
ple- completed past action prefix before consonants
pl- completed past action prefix before vowels
tlu- ongoing past action prefix before consonants
tl- ongoing past action prefix before vowels
sri- future tense prefix before consonants
sr- future tense prefix before vowels
oh- irrealis prefix before consonants (precedes all other prefixes)
oht- irrealis prefix before vowels (precedes all other prefixes)

 

Regular Words
Proto-1 English
tunt after, following
tark all that is, everything (mass noun)
bid and
wiúl arrow
panp to be born (active verb, unlike the passive construction used in English)
rohrg bear-like animal
hab black
tek boat
dralt brother
pomp buffalo-like animal
zhiht careful, meticulous
mah cat
tank cheeky
simb child as in „first generation descendant“, though NOT child as in „young person“
ilk choice, option to make a decision
yihmek cloud
yíhpech club (simple but effective tool for hitting people or animals with)
pert coinciding with, taking place during, while something happens
ahr to collect, gather, pick up
burg crab
krak crow- or raven-like bird
lurp curious
churt curve, crooked line
yíhralp danger, threat
perg dark, darkish (color) (as in, „dark green“ as opposed to „light green“, NOT used for lack of light)
sahp darkness, dark place
puk day
lumd dedication (of something or someone to something or someone)
lohk deer
piht dividing line
ek to do pottery
gremék drought („rain-negated“)
dup drum (noun)
kladúp drummer
hahrk eagle
peb ear
lib early afternoon
het early morning, first signs of dawn
pum early summer
tarkré earthquake („everything shakes“)
tsik end (noun)
wíhrulp escape, rescue (noun)
inp evening
ahf to expand
shoht experienced, wise
kihg eye
pimt face
riht fall (season)
zhimk family
zhah father
liht fierce, passionate
kirt fifth
um to fight, make war
slu fire
slurt fire pit
pul first
lek fish
kruftrelék fisher („fish hunter“)
kírtu five
eték flood („very water“)
bahl flower
kurg foot
senp forest
táh‘u four
tah fourth
lund gift
penp to give birth
thenp good fortune, blessing, good luck
telp grass
zhunk gray (color)
talp green
thohp group of outsiders, rival tribe, neighboring group
kirg hand
hinp hard, difficult, filled with hardship or difficulty
ezh to heal, improve, repair, make right
krezh healer, person who improves or repairs things or makes things right
pech to hit, strike
frutelptsík horizon („end of the sky“)
hih horse-like animal
chi hundred
tanb hungry
uf to hunt
kruf hunter
guk large rock, boulder
chohk late afternoon
farp late morning
funk late summer
if to lay a trap
krif layer of traps, trapper
zhemk leader, head of household
zhip leopard- or jaguar-like animal
purg light (color), pale (as in „light green“ as opposed to „dark green“, NOT used for presence of light)
bu little, small
shemd lizard
felt long [distance, timespan]
pet long [object]
ark many
lild meat
tsahp middle of the night
etpalpslúp midsummer holiday („very high sun“)
gretpalpslúp midwinter holiday („very high-negated sun“)
uk monkey
wīhpech mortar (tool for grinding)
fah mother
thurp mountain
surk mouth
kit near, next to, side by side with
tulk new, young
tomp noise, loud sounds
palpslúp noon („high sun“)
talk old
ket on, at, in the same place as
pūlu one
ru owl-like bird
ip to paint, embellish
serk path, road
krishóht person who is experienced, wise
arp place (noun)
klafíh player of a recorder
krek potter
shu powerful spirit/deity
zhilp priest, cleric, shaman
tink quiet, shy
mek rain (noun)
fih recorder (instrument)
zhahf respected/venerated/worshiped ancestor
dzerp rightful, righteous
nek river, creek
heb rocky surface
rulp safe, protected
tud second
páku seven
pak seventh
re to shake, vibrate, shiver
eng sing
kreng singer
drult sister
fúlu six
ful sixth
telt sky
sak spear
sohk species of tree [3]
tóhkpeb speech, name of the language itself
hank spider
balk spring (season)
ul to sprint, move very quickly
kip string, rope
etkriré strong person („intensifier-shaker)
slup sun
palp tall, high
fink third
fínku three
fruteltómp thunderstorm
salk tip of a spear
krilb track reader
kemk trunk (of a tree)
túdu two
thanp victory
wíh‘um war
krum warrior
ek water
kohb way [of doing things]
foh wind
irp winter
hu wolf-like animal
ahlk wonderful [event], miraculous, positively surprising
chichichízárp world („hundred hundred hundred places“)
pirp year

 

Deities
Name of Deity Meaning of Deity’s name
Fáh’uk Goddess of monkeys
Fáh’hu Goddess of a wolf-like animal
Fáhfáh Fertility goddess
Fáhwih’um Goddess of war
Fáhzhip Goddess of a leopard/jaguar-like animal
Shúbahl Spirit/deity of flowers
Shúburg Spirit/deity of crabs
Shúek Spirit/deity of water
Shúhank Spirit/deity of spiders
Shúkrishóht Spirit/deity of wisdom
Shúlohk Spirit/deity of deer
Shúpomp Spirit/deity of a buffalo-like animal
Shúsenp Spirit/deity of the forest
Shúslu Spirit/deity of fire
Shútelp Spirit/deity of grass
Shúthurp Spirit/deity of the mountains
Zháhkrezh God of healing
Zháhkruf God of hunting
Zháhmah God of cats
Zháhshemd God of lizards

 

Finally, human given names.

Not all of these names were used at the same time in the same place; different groups had different naming traditions.

 

Version of the name used in everyday life Version of the name used on ceremonial occasions Origin of the name
Ahlkwíhrulp Ahlkwíhrulptuntplepánp Born after the miraculous escape [from a great danger]
Balkpért or Balk Balkpertplepánp Born in spring
Chóhkpert or Chohk Chóhkpertplepánp Born in the late afternoon
Etékpert or Eték Etékpertplepánp Born during a flood
Etéktunt or Eték Etéktuntplepánp Born after a flood
Etpalpslūp Etpalpslūpertplepánp Born during the midsummer holiday
Farpért or Farp Farpertplepánp Born late in the morning
Fink Finkplepánp Thirdborn
Fretkréng or Fret Fretkrengsímb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] great singer
Fretkrézh or Fret Fretkrezhsímb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] great healer
Fretkríf or Fret Fretkrifsímb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] great preparer of traps
Fretkrílb orf Fret Fretkrilbsímb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] skilled tracker
Fretkriré or Fret Fretkrirésimb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] strong person
Fretkrúf or Fret Fretkrufsímb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] great hunter
Fretkrúm or Fret Fretkrumsímb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] great warrior
Frubukdrált or Frubúk Frubukdrált [younger] brother of [a child nicknamed] little monkey
Frubukdrúlt or Frubúk Frubukdrúlt [younger] sister of [a child nicknamed] little monkey
Frufáh’uk Frufáh’uklúnd Gift of the goddess of monkeys
Frufáh’hu Frufáh’hulúnd Gift of the goddess of a wolf-like animal
Frufáhfáh Frufáhfáhlúnd Gift of the fertility goddess
Frufáhwih’um or Frufáhwum Frufáhwih’umlúnd Gift of the goddess of war
Frufáhzhip Frufáhzhiplúnd Gift of the goddess of a leopard/jaguar-like animal
Frukladúb Frukladúbsimb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] drummer
Fruklafíh Fruklafíhsimb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] recorder player
Frukrék Frukreksímb Child of a potter
Frukrilúrp Frukrilurpdrált [younger] brother of [a child nicknamed] the curious one
Frukrilúrp Frukrilurpdrúlt [younger] sister of [a child nicknamed] the curious one
Frukrishóht Frukrishóhtsimb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] wise/knowledgeable person
Frukritánb Frukritanbdrált [younger] brother of [a child nicknamed] the hungry one
Frukritánb Frukritanbdrúlt [younger] sister of [a child nicknamed] the hungry one
Frukritánk Frukritankdrált [younger] brother of [a child nicknamed] the cheeky one
Frukritánk Frukritankdrúlt [younger] sister of [a child nicknamed] the cheeky one
Frukritínk Frukritinkdrált [younger] brother of [a child nicknamed] the quiet/shy one
Frukritínk Frukritinkdrúlt [younger] sister of [a child nicknamed] the quiet/shy one
Frukrúl Frukrulsímb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] fast runner
Frukruldrált or Frukrúl Frukruldrált [younger] brother of [a child nicknamed] fast runner
Frukruldrúlt or Frukrúl Frukruldrúlt [younger] sister of [a child nicknamed] fast runner
Frumáhdralt or Frumáh Frumáhdralt [younger] brother of [a child nicknamed] cat
Frumáhdrult or Frumáh Frumáhdrult [younger] sister of [a child nicknamed] cat
Frushúbah Frushúbahlúnd Gift of the spirit/deity of flowers
Frushúburg Frushúburglúnd Gift of the spirit/deity of crabs
Frushúek or Frushúk Frushúeklúnd Gift of the spirit/deity of water
Frushúhank Frushúhanklúnd Gift of the spirit/deity of spiders
Frushúkrishóht or Frushúkrish Frushúkrishóhtlúnd Gift of the spirit/deity of wisdom
Frushúlohk Frushúlohklúnd Gift of the spirit/deity of deer
Frushúpomp Frushúpomplúnd Gift of the spirit/deity of a buffalo-like animal
Frushúsenp Frushúsenplúnd Gift of the spirit/deity of the forest
Frushúslu Frushúslulúnd Gift of the spirit/deity of fire
Frushútelp Frushútelplúnd Gift of the spirit/deity of grass
Frushúthurp Frushúthurplúnd Gift of the spirit/deity of the mountains
Fruteltómp Fruteltómpertplepánp Born during a thunderstorm
Fruzháhkrezh Fruzháhkrezhlúnd Gift of the god of healing
Fruzháhkruf Fruzháhkruflúnd Gift of the god of hunting
Fruzháhmah Fruzháhmahlúnd Gift of the god of cats
Fruzháhshemd Fruzháhshemdlúnd Gift of the god of lizards
Fruzhihtkírg or Fruzhíht Fruzhihtkirgsímb Child of [an adult who had earned the nickname] careful/meticulous hand
Fruzhílb Fruzhilbsímb Child of a priest/cleric/shaman
Fruzidrált Fruzidraltdrúlt Sister of [several older] brothers
Fruzidrúlt Fruzidrultdrált Brother of [several older] sisters
Ful Fulplepánp Sixtborn
Funkpért or Funk Funkpertplepánp Born in late summer
Gremékpert or Gremék Gremékpertplepánp Born during [an unusually long] drought
Gretpalpslūp Gretpalpslūpertplepánp Born during the midwinter holiday
Hahrk Hahrk Eagle
Hetpért or Het Hetpertplepánp Born early in the morning
Hinplepánp Hinplepánp Difficult birth
Hintpirpért or Hinpírp Hinpirpertplepánp Born during a difficult year
Inpért or Inp Inpertplepánp Born in the evening
Irpért or Irp Irpertplepánp Born in winter
Kirt Kirtplepánp Fifthborn
Krak Krak Crow/raven-like bird
Kripérg Kripérg [unusually] dark-skinned
Kripúrg Kripúrg [unusually] light-skinned
Libpért or Lib Libpertplepánp Born in the early afternoon
Liht Liht Fierce
Mekpért or Mek Mekpertplepánp Born during [an unusually long period of] rain
Pak Pakplepánp Seventhborn
Palpslúp Palpslúpertplepánp Born at noon
Pul Pulplepánp Firstborn
Pumpért or Pum Pumpertplepánp Born in early summer
Ríhtpert or Riht Ríhtpertplepánp Born in fall
Rohrg Rohrg Bear-like animal
Sak Sak Spear
Salk Salk Tip of a spear
Tah Táhplepánp Fourthborn
Talpzikíhg Talpzikíhg Green eyes
Tarkré Tarkrétuntplepánp Born [shortly] after the earthquake
Thanp Thanp Victory
Trefáh’uk Lumdtrefáh’uk Dedicated to the goddess of monkeys
Trefáh’hu Lumdtrefáh’hu Dedicated to the goddess of a wolf-like animal
Trefáhfáh Lumdtrefáhfáh Dedicated to the fertility goddess
Trefáhwih’um Lumdtrefáhwih’um Dedicated to the goddess of war
Trefázhip Lumdtrefázhip Dedicated to the goddess of a leopard/jaguar-like animal
Treshúbahl Lumdtreshúbahl Dedicated to the spirit/deity of flowers
Treshúburg Lumdtreshúburg Dedicated to the spirit/deity of crabs
Treshúek or Treshúk Lumdtreshúek Dedicated to the spirit/deity of water
Treshúhank Lumdtreshúhank Dedicated to the spirit/deity of spiders
Treshúkrishóht or Treshúkrish Lumdtreshúkrishóht Dedicated to the spirit/deity of wisdom
Treshúlohk Lumdtreshúlohk Dedicated to the spirit/deity of deer
Treshúpomp Lumdtreshúpomp Dedicated to the spirit/deity of a buffalo-like animal
Treshúsenp Lumdtreshúsenp Dedicated to the spirit/deity of the forest
Treshúslu Lumdtreshúslu Dedicated to the spirit/deity of fire
Treshútelp Lumdtreshútelp Dedicated to the spirit/deity of grass
Treshúthurp Lumdtreshúthurp Dedicated to the spirit/deity of the mountains
Trezháhf or Hahrk Lumdtrezháhfhahrk Dedicated to the respected ancestor named Hahrk
Trezháhf or Kripérg Lumdtrezháhfkripérg Dedicated to the respected ancestor named Kripérg
Trezháhf or Kripúrg Lumdtrezháhfkripúrg Dedicated to the respected ancestor named Kripúrg
Trezháhf or Liht Lumdtrezháhfliht Dedicated to the respected ancestor named Liht
Trezháhf or Rohrg Lumdtrezháhfrohrg Dedicated to the respected ancestor named Rohrg
Trezháhf or Sak Lumdtrezháhfsak Dedicated to the respected ancestor named Sak
Trezháhf or Salk Lumdtrezháhfsalk Dedicated to the respected ancestor named Salk
Trezháhf or Talpzikíhg Lumdtrezháhftalpzikíhg Dedicated to the respected ancestor named Talpzikíhg
Trezháhf or Thanp Lumdtrezháhfthanp Dedicated to the respected ancestor named Thanp
Trezháhf or Wiúl Lumdtrezháhfwiúl Dedicated to the respected ancestor named Wiúl
Trezháhkrezh Lumdtrezháhkrezh Dedicated to the god of healing
Trezháhkruf Lumdtrezháhkruf Dedicated to the god of hunting
Trezháhmah Lumdtrezháhmah Dedicated to the god of cats
Trezháhshemd Lumdtrezháhshemd Dedicated to the god of lizards
Tsahpért or Tsahp Tsahpertplepánp Born in the middle of the night
Tud Tudplepánp Secondborn
Wiúl Wiúl Arrow

That’s it!

(Comments here are closed; if you want to comment, please do so on the Board.)

 

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A few thoughts on being halfway through the decade

So the 2010s are half over, and I’m still not sure how exactly they’re different from the late 2000s. It’s been a mixed half-decade for me personally, with some bad times, but more hope lately. When the decade started, I was full of ideas about what to write, but I’ve gotten a lot less convinced that I’ve got interesting things to add to the conversation since then.

I’m not old enough to remember the 1960s, but I am old enough to remember when 50th anniversaries were about events from World War 2, so all those 50th anniversaries of events from the 1960s that we have in this decade kind of freak me out. We all get older, I guess.

However, as time passes, there’s something that I’m kind of wondering about. With the caveat that I know next to nothing about music- aren’t we long overdue to get some major new music style? We’re getting new songs and artists all the time, of course, but the major musical styles and genres seem to be basically the same as 20 years ago (except that techno is less big now). Twenty years ago, there were hip hop and techno, which hadn’t been around 40 years ago- but what do we have now that wasn’t around twenty years ago? What’s going on with that?

Going back to what I wrote at the start, what were the major developments setting this decade apart from the last years of the 2000s? Smartphones, Facebook, Youtube, and Twitter were all around back in 2009. What else?

Anyway, Happy New Year, everyone!

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Short Update About the Lack of Updates

If you had told me ten years ago that I would have a blog ten years later, but would spend years without posting anything there, I probably wouldn’t have believed you. Perhaps it’s a bit like that famous Socrates quote, though: The more I learn, the more I get the impression that I know very little, and have little to say that hasn’t already been said better by others. We’ll see if I post stuff again.

Posted in Uncategorized

Mundane Things, described Fantasy-style

She settled down on her seat in the Dedicated Corner, bracing herself for the task that lay ahead. She was sure that she would master it; but how many unforseen stones would lie in her path? Would she, finally, step around them calmly? Or would they, as they had so often in the past, raise that dreadful pain of anger in her veins, a fury so fierce that mere human matters could seldom wake it? Or would her heart stay calm, even in the face of uniquely unpleasant foolishness?

But in any way, she had to do it now- it would have been pointless to take Seat here, only to turn back. And so her fingers found the right point, one of them sinking itself into the delicate structure.

The reaction came almost instantly. The Force she that had called upon, that Ancient, Eternal Force, a Force woven deeply into the Cloth of All that Is, a Force that even helped to hold some of the threads of that very Cloth together, and that, in other ways, took part in the mysterious, horrible and wonderful workings of the Mind itself- that Force now washed through the lanes that had been laid out for it.

And with a multitude of sounds- short, sharp ones, as well as low but steady ones, but all of them sounds that none had known in the Old Days, before what made them had been carved, sounds that were strange yet familiar now- the Middle-Sized Tool that Knows the Numbers awoke and came to life.

She knew what would come; she had set the Tool to use uncounted numbers before. And so, the complex play of Lights, some of them moving among each other, did not frighten or astonish her as it might have done with someone who had never seen one such Tool before. Indeed, she knew a bit about the Tool’s inner working; not much, but enough to understand what some of its Parts were, and what part they played in the intricate Dance that was the Tool at work. She even had some very basic understanding of the Rules of that Dance. It was not much- she knew that she would never come close to perceiving what the High Masters of the Tools that Know the Numbers knew- but it was still more than what most of the people who used these Tools for their craft, or gained a bit of joy and pleasure from them every day, could have told you about them.

If she had been a vain woman, a woman of skills but without any humility, she might have found it insulting that such people, people whose Minds could never grasp even the simplest of the workings of a Tool like this, could nevertheless make use of them; but such thoughts simply never crossed her Mind. She could see that this particular Tool that Knows the Numbers was ready now, ready to be put to use. Her fingers started to dance, as they had to. Now was the time when she would fail- or succeed.

(This is a repost of something I posted elsewhere years ago, where’s it’s been auto-deleted since then. The idea was to see how modern inventions could be described in the language of legends or fantasy stories. No, it was not meant to be well-written; the turgidness is part of the point.)

Posted in Bad Writing, Fantasy, Science, Sillyness, Technology, Using this instead of tumblr, Writing